The ADKAR model is a popular change management framework that helps individuals and organizations understand the stages of change, and how to manage change effectively. The ADKAR model was developed by Jeff Hiatt, the founder of Prosci, a leading change management firm.
ADKAR is an acronym that stands for:
Awareness: This stage involves creating awareness about the need for change among the people who will be affected by it. This includes understanding the reasons for the change, the benefits of the change, and the potential impact of the change.
Desire: In this stage, individuals need to have a desire to support the change. This involves understanding why the change is necessary and how it will benefit them and the organization.
Knowledge: Once individuals have a desire to support the change, they need to acquire the knowledge necessary to make the change successfully. This includes training, education, and communication about the change.
Ability: In this stage, individuals must have the skills and ability to make the change happen. This may involve providing additional resources, tools, or support to help people adapt to the change.
Reinforcement: Finally, in this stage, individuals need to be reinforced and rewarded for making the change. This includes recognizing and celebrating successes, and providing ongoing support and encouragement to ensure that the change becomes a part of the organizational culture.
The ADKAR model is a useful framework for managing change because it focuses on the individual level, and helps to ensure that people have the necessary knowledge, skills, and motivation to make the change happen. By following the ADKAR model, organizations can increase their chances of success and achieve their desired outcomes.
PMI (the Project Management Institute) has recently introduced new content into it's curriculum....the Process Owner and Process Manager. The distinction between these two roles seems to originate from ServiceNow's influence.
In small organizations the same person wears both hats, but in larger organizations these two roles may be split between two people. Basically the Process Owner is a senior person responsible for "working on" the process, to improve it, while the Process Manager "works in" the process to execute it with efficiency. A description of each role follows:
Job Description for Process Owner:
Process Owner's are responsible for the end-to-end oversight of a particular business process within an organization. Their main responsibilities include designing, implementing, monitoring, and continuously improving the process to ensure it meets the organization's goals and objectives. Process owners also ensure that the process is compliant with regulatory requirements and industry standards. They work closely with cross-functional teams to identify areas for improvement and implement changes that increase efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance quality. Other key responsibilities of a process owner include:
- Developing and maintaining process documentation, including standard operating procedures (SOPs), process flowcharts, and process metrics.
- Monitoring process performance using key performance indicators (KPIs) and other metrics, and identifying areas for improvement. (Note, both roles include this bullet point as it is an ongoing common point of review and discussion.)
- Leading process improvement initiatives, including process re-engineering and process automation.
- Collaborating with other process owners to ensure that processes are integrated and aligned across the organization.
- Communicating process changes to stakeholders, including senior management, process users, and customers.
- Providing training and support to process users to ensure that they understand and follow the process.
Job Description for Process Manager:
Process managers are responsible for the day-to-day management of a particular business process within an organization. They ensure that the process is executed efficiently and effectively, and that process users comply with the process requirements. Process managers work closely with process owners and cross-functional teams to identify areas for improvement and implement changes that increase efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance quality. Other key responsibilities of a process manager include:
- Ensuring that the process is executed in compliance with regulatory requirements and industry standards.
- Monitoring process performance using KPIs and other metrics, and identifying areas for improvement. (Note, both roles include this bullet point as it is an ongoing common point of review and discussion.)
- Providing training and support to process users to ensure that they understand and follow the process.
- Identifying and addressing process issues and bottlenecks that impact process performance.
- Collaborating with other process managers and process owners to ensure that processes are integrated and aligned across the organization.
- Communicating process changes to stakeholders, including senior management, process users, and customers.
- Developing and maintaining process documentation, including SOPs, process flowcharts, and process metrics.
Overall, while both roles are involved in managing and improving business processes, the process owner has a more strategic and high-level focus, while the process manager has a more operational and hands-on focus. The process owner is responsible for setting the direction of the process, while the process manager is responsible for executing the process according to the owner's direction. The process owner is more involved in initiating and leading process improvement initiatives, while the process manager is more involved in implementing and monitoring process changes on a day-to-day basis.
Managing project risks and issues is an important aspect of project management. Here are some best practices to help you manage project risks and issues effectively:
Identify and assess risks: Identify potential risks that could impact the project and assess their likelihood and potential impact. This can help you prioritize and focus on the risks that are most important. List these risks in a document called a Risk Register, so that you can keep track of them. Updated it regularly.
Develop a risk management plan: Develop a plan for managing identified risks, including how they will be monitored, mitigated, and communicated to the project team and stakeholders.
Proactively manage risks: Proactively manage risks by taking steps to mitigate them before they become bigger problems. This could involve developing contingency plans, adjusting project schedules, or reallocating resources.
Monitor and control risks: Regularly monitor and control risks throughout the project by tracking their status and taking corrective action as needed. This can help you minimize the impact of risks on the project.
Establish a process for managing issues: Establish a process for managing issues that arise during the project, including how they will be reported, evaluated, and resolved. This can help you quickly identify and address issues before they become larger problems.
Document and track issues as they occur: Document all issues that arise during the project, including the impact on the project, the action taken to address the issue, and the resolution status. This can help ensure that issues are properly tracked and managed.
Communicate effectively: Communicate risks and issues to the project team and stakeholders in a timely and transparent manner. This can help ensure that everyone is aware of the risks and issues and can work together to address them.
By following these best practices, you can help ensure that project risks and issues are managed effectively and that the project is delivered successfully.
There are many project management tools and software available to help you plan, manage, and execute projects effectively. Here are some of the key project management tools and software:
Project management software: Project management software provides a centralized platform for managing project tasks, timelines, budgets, resources, and communications. Some popular project management software includes Asana, Trello, Basecamp, Jira, and Microsoft Project.
Gantt chart software: Gantt chart software allows you to create visual timelines that show the progress of tasks and the overall project. This can help you track dependencies, identify critical path tasks, and manage timelines effectively. Some popular Gantt chart software includes TeamGantt, GanttPRO, and Wrike.
Collaboration software: Collaboration software provides a platform for team members to communicate and collaborate on project tasks, documents, and files. Some popular collaboration software includes Microsoft Teams, Slack, Discord, and Google Workspace.
Time tracking software: Time tracking software allows you to track how much time team members spend on project tasks, which can help with resource planning, billing, and project management. Some popular time tracking software includes Harvest, Toggl, and RescueTime.
Risk management software: Risk management software allows you to identify, assess, and manage project risks. This can help you proactively mitigate risks and minimize their impact on the project. Some popular risk management software includes Riskalyze, RiskyProject, and any tool that will provide a Risk Matrix.
Agile software: Agile software provides a platform for managing agile projects and workflows, including Scrum, Kanban, and Lean methodologies. Some popular agile software includes Atlassian's Jira Software, and Targetprocess.
These are just a few examples of the project management tools and software available to help you manage projects effectively. The best tools and software for your project will depend on your specific needs, budget, and team structure.
Managing project scope and change is a critical aspect of project management. Here are some best practices to help you manage project scope and change effectively:
Define the project scope: Clearly define the project scope, including what is included and what is excluded. This will help you and your team understand what needs to be delivered and what is out of scope.
Develop a change management plan: Develop a plan for managing changes to the project scope. This plan should outline how changes will be requested, evaluated, and approved, as well as how they will be communicated to the team and other stakeholders.
Establish a change control board: Establish a change control board or similar group of stakeholders who will review and approve or reject change requests. This helps ensure that changes are evaluated objectively and with the project's overall goals in mind.
Document changes: Document all changes to the project scope, including the reason for the change, the impact on the project, and the approval status. This helps keep everyone informed and ensures that changes are properly tracked.
Monitor and control the project scope: Regularly review the project's progress against the project scope and make adjustments as needed. This can help ensure that the project stays on track and within the defined scope.
Manage stakeholder expectations: Manage stakeholder expectations throughout the project by communicating clearly and regularly about the project's goals, scope, and any changes that may occur. This can help minimize surprises and ensure that stakeholders remain engaged and supportive throughout the project.
Identify and manage risks: Identify and manage risks that could impact the project scope or lead to changes. This can help you proactively address potential issues before they become bigger problems.
By following these best practices, you can help ensure that project scope and changes are managed effectively and that the project is delivered successfully.
There are several project management methodologies and practices to choose from, and the best approach depends on the specific needs and goals of the project. Here are some of the most popular project management methodologies and practices:
- Agile: Agile is a flexible, iterative approach to project management that emphasizes collaboration, adaptability, and delivering value to the customer. Agile methodologies include Scrum, Kanban, and Lean.
- Waterfall: Waterfall is a linear, sequential approach to project management that involves completing each phase of the project before moving on to the next. It's a more traditional approach and is useful for projects where the requirements are well-defined and unlikely to change.
- Stable: The Stable Framework™ is an Operational Excellence model for project management and operations that can be combined with Agile, or can be performed stand-alone.
- RINCE2: PRINCE2 is a project management methodology that provides a structured approach to managing projects, including defined roles and responsibilities, a focus on the business case, and a step-by-step approach to project delivery.
- PMI's PMBOK: The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is a framework developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI) that provides guidelines for managing projects across a range of industries and project types.
- OPPM: The One Page Project Manager is a spreadsheet-based approach to Project Management.
- VI Sigma: Six Sigma is a data-driven methodology that focuses on improving processes and reducing defects in products and services. It's often used in manufacturing and other industries where quality control is critical.
In addition to these methodologies, there are several project management practices that can help ensure project success, including:
- Defining clear project objectives and deliverables
- Establishing effective communication channels and regular project status updates
- Assigning roles and responsibilities to team members
- Developing a comprehensive project plan and schedule
- Identifying and managing risks throughout the project
- Monitoring and controlling the project's progress against the plan
Ultimately, the best project management methodology and practices will depend on the specific needs and goals of your project. It's important to assess the unique requirements of the project and choose the approach that's best suited to meet those needs.
- Creating a project plan involves several steps, including defining the project scope, identifying the project objectives, identifying the project stakeholders, determining the project deliverables, developing a project schedule, allocating resources, and creating a project budget. Here's a general overview of how to create a project plan:
- Define the project scope: Clearly define the boundaries of the project, including what is included and what is excluded.
- Identify the project objectives: Determine what the project aims to accomplish and how it will be measured.
- Identify the project stakeholders: In addition to the sponsor who commissioned you, who else needs to be involved in the project?
- Determine the project deliverables: Create a list of all the products, services, or results that the project will deliver to meet the objectives.
- Develop a project schedule: Create a timeline that outlines the tasks, milestones, and deadlines that are required to complete the project. Use a Gantt chart or a similar tool to visualize the schedule.
- Allocate resources: Determine the resources needed to complete each task, including staff, equipment, and materials.
- Create a project budget: Estimate the cost of each resource, and use this information to create a project budget.
- Identify risks and mitigation strategies: Identify potential risks to the project and develop strategies to mitigate or manage them.
- Develop a communication plan: Identify who needs to be informed about the project, how often, and what information they need.
- Monitor and control the project: Regularly review the project's progress against the plan, and make adjustments as needed to keep it on track.
It's a common practice to include a project Charter--a single page cover sheet describing the project's' essential information. The helps others quickly understand the purpose of the project.
Creating a project plan can be a complex process, but it's an essential step in ensuring the project's success. Consider using project management software to help you plan and manage the project. Popular project planning software includes Microsoft Project, Jira, Smartsheet, Asana, and One-Page.
Here are some interview questions that can be useful when hiring a project manager:
Can you describe your experience managing projects? What was the size and complexity of the projects you managed? How did you manage the project scope, schedule, and budget?
How do you communicate project progress and issues to stakeholders? What strategies do you use to ensure that stakeholders are kept informed and engaged throughout the project?
Can you walk me through your project management process? How do you plan a project, identify risks and issues, and manage changes?
Can you give an example of a time when you had to deal with a difficult stakeholder or team member? How did you handle the situation?
How do you manage team members who are not performing as expected? What strategies do you use to motivate and engage team members?
How do you prioritize tasks and manage multiple projects at once? What strategies do you use to ensure that each project receives the attention it needs?
Can you describe your experience with agile or other project management methodologies? How do you adapt your approach to the needs of each project?
How do you measure project success? What metrics do you use to track progress and determine whether a project has met its goals?
Can you give an example of a time when a project did not go as planned? How did you manage the situation and what did you learn from it?
Can you describe your experience managing remote or distributed teams? What strategies do you use to ensure effective communication and collaboration?
These interview questions can help you assess a candidate's experience, skills, and approach to project management, as well as their ability to adapt to different situations and work effectively with stakeholders and team members.
A Project Management Office (PMO) and an Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO) are both centralized groups within an organization that provide project management guidance and support to ensure that projects align with the organization's goals and objectives. However, there are some key differences between these two types of offices.
A PMO typically focuses on managing projects within a specific business unit or department, while an EPMO has a broader scope and oversees all projects across the organization. An EPMO is responsible for developing and implementing a standardized approach to project management across the organization, including processes, tools, and templates.
The primary responsibilities of a PMO include providing project management guidance and support, monitoring project performance, and ensuring that projects are aligned with the goals and objectives of the business unit. The PMO also facilitates communication and collaboration between project teams, stakeholders, and senior management.
The responsibilities of an EPMO, on the other hand, are much broader. In addition to the responsibilities of a PMO, an EPMO is also responsible for developing and implementing a project management methodology that is used across the entire organization. The EPMO ensures that all projects are aligned with the organization's strategic goals and objectives and that projects are prioritized and resourced appropriately.
An EPMO also typically has more authority and influence within the organization than a PMO. It has a higher level of oversight and governance over projects and may be responsible for strategic planning and decision-making related to project portfolios. An EPMO may also be responsible for managing the organization's project management resources, including project managers and other project management professionals.
In summary, while a PMO and an EPMO share many similarities, an EPMO has a broader scope and is responsible for overseeing all projects across the organization, while a PMO typically focuses on managing projects within a specific business unit or department.
Establishing a Project Management Office (PMO, sometimes called EPMO for 'Enterprise' PMO) within an organization can be a complex and challenging process. Some of the common challenges that organizations face when creating a PMO include:
- Resistance to Change: One of the biggest challenges of establishing a PMO is resistance to change from employees and stakeholders. Some employees may not want to adopt new project management practices or may be skeptical about the need for a PMO.
Solution: To overcome resistance to change, organizations should clearly communicate the benefits of the PMO to all stakeholders and involve them in the process of creating the PMO. It is important to create a culture of change management that encourages all stakeholders to actively participate in the PMO creation process.
- Lack of Resources: Creating a PMO requires a significant investment in resources, including personnel, technology, and training. Organizations may struggle to allocate the necessary resources to establish a PMO.
Solution: Organizations should develop a clear business case for the PMO that demonstrates the value it will bring to the organization. They should also allocate sufficient resources to support the PMO, including personnel, technology, and training.
- Difficulty in Identifying and Prioritizing Projects: Organizations may struggle to identify and prioritize projects that align with their strategic objectives. Without clear guidance, it can be difficult for project managers to determine which projects to focus on and how to prioritize them.
Solution: Organizations should establish a clear process for identifying and prioritizing projects, and communicate this process to all stakeholders. The PMO should provide guidance and support to project managers in determining which projects to focus on and how to prioritize them.
- Lack of Project Management Maturity: If an organization lacks project management maturity, it can be challenging to establish a PMO that can effectively manage projects and deliver value to the organization.
Solution: Organizations should assess their project management maturity and identify areas where they need to improve. The PMO should provide training, coaching, and support to project managers to improve their project management practices.
- Resistance to PMO Governance: The PMO may face resistance from project managers who may feel that PMO governance is too rigid and inflexible, which can hinder project delivery.
Solution: The PMO should establish governance frameworks that are flexible and adaptable to the needs of individual projects. The PMO should also provide guidance and support to project managers in following the governance frameworks to ensure that projects are delivered on time, within budget, and to the required quality standards.
Establishing a PMO can bring many benefits to an organization, but it can also be challenging. Organizations must be prepared to address the challenges that they may face when creating a PMO. By implementing the solutions outlined above, organizations can overcome these challenges and establish a PMO that can effectively manage projects and deliver value to the organization.